Photographic techniques

To successfully communicate to the viewer how to take a manual photograph. I myself need to understand and have a sentence to describe the process. I am going to research the definition of each technique involved, included photographs showing the process and explain the processes.

1. Aperture

When the shutter release button is hit to take a photograph a hole opens up allowing the camera image sensor to catch a glimpse of the scene you are capturing. The aperture set impacts the size of the hole and the light that goes into the image. The larger a hole the more light let in, the smaller the less light.  Aperture is measured in f-stops as shown below.

Aperture Diagram
When increasing aperture shutter speed must be decreased to allow light in, and vice versa. A large aperture is associated with small f/stop numbers, and a smaller aperture has a large f/stop number.

Aperture also allows for depth of field. A shallow depth of field is achieved using a large aperture (small f/stop number), and a large depth of field using a small aperture (big f/stop number). I however will not be exploring DOF indepth.

My images will be similar to this. 

2. ISO

ISO measure the sensitivity of the image sensor. It is measure in numbers, the lower the number the less sensitive the camera is to light, creating a fine grain. High ISO is used for darker settings to get faster shutter speed, however noise is created in the shots.

In the image below there is a low 100 ISO and on the right a high 3200 ISO.


I am thinking of doing something similar to the above image for my infographic, however illustrated obviously.

3. Shutter Speed

Shutter speed is basically the amount of time the cameras shutter is open, allowing the image sensor to “see” the scene awaiting capture. It is measure in seconds, or fractions of seconds. The bigger the denominator the faster the speed. For example 1/320 is faster than 1/60. On a slow speed (1/60 or lower) the camera is prone to shake and therefore a tripod is needed. A slow shutter speed is good for sports and movement shots, while a fast is good for still shots.

An example is below

For my image I am considering doing something similar to the below. A timeline showing numbers and the appropriate setting/what the shot will look like.

4. White Balance

White balance is adjusted to get the colours in the image accurate as possible. At the naked eye the scene can look normal however images have different sources of light with a different colour or temperature to them. This ranges from very cool light blue to a very warm candle colour. So for a blue setting, you would use a warm setting. For a yellow setting, you would use a cool setting.

The preset white balance settings are as follows;

  • “Auto – this is where the camera makes a best guess on a shot by shot basis. You’ll find it works in many situations but it’s worth venturing out of it for trickier lighting.
  • Tungsten – this mode is usually symbolized with a little bulb and is for shooting indoors, especially under tungsten (incandescent) lighting (such as bulb lighting). It generally cools down the colors in photos.
  • Fluorescent – this compensates for the ‘cool’ light of fluorescent light and will warm up your shots.
  • Daylight/Sunny – not all cameras have this setting because it sets things as fairly ‘normal’ white balance settings.
  • Cloudy – this setting generally warms things up a touch more than ‘daylight’ mode.
  • Flash – the flash of a camera can be quite a cool light so in Flash WB mode you’ll find it warms up your shots a touch.
  • Shade – the light in shade is generally cooler (bluer) than shooting in direct sunlight so this mode will warm things up a little.”

    An example is above.

    For my illustration I want to do something similar to the above. However it would not be in chart format. I want to use the appropriate symbols and colours associated with it. But underneath have a heading appropriate scenes with little images.

5. Exposure

Exposure is set by ISO, Shutter Speed and Aperture. This determines how bright or dark an image will be. This is shown below. It is easier to understand while viewing.

The exposure can be adjusted on a timeline of -2 to +2 on the camera to get the right setting. For my image I want to communicate this idea similar to the image below.

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